A crawler crane is the main force in the hoisting operation of projects. The powerful machinery, thanks to its broad grounding area, strong stability, and moving with a heavy load, fill many roles on today’s construction sites. But what makes it tick? Let’s take a look at some of the main crawler crane components.
Basic Parts of A Crawler Crane
1. Load Handling Device
In most cases, the pick-up device of a crawler crane is a hook. While the grab and electromagnetic suction cup are accessory devices.
2. Crane Boom
The boom is a kind of steel structure, which can support the hoisting wire rope and pulley block. It is directly installed on the upper slewing platform of a crawler crane. Bending down or up a crane boom could change the machinery operating radius. According to the construction needs, we can lengthen the crane jib. Even as occasion requires, you can install an extra boom on the top of the main boom to expand the scope of operation.
3. Crawler Crane Undercarriage Parts
Undercarriage parts are the walking components of a crawler crane, also known as chassis, which is the base of the rotary device. The chassis parts of a crawler crane undercarriage mainly include track shoes, driving wheel, idler, track rollers, and many others.
4. Slewing Bearing
It is installed on the undercarriage to support the upper slewing part of the machinery. Aside from slewing bearing, a complete crawler crane swing mechanism also are composed of rolling and stationary parts and the frame used to fix the slewing support device.
The counterweight is the iron block with a certain shape installed at the end of the crane slewing platform. The main function it has is to make sure the machinery working smoothly. If necessary, the iron can be unloaded and transported separately.
6. Power Unit
The power unit serves as an energy source normally used for all kinds of construction machinery. Differently, the diesel engines of crawler cranes are four-stroke diesel engines.
How does a power unit drive the machinery to work? On a crawler crane, the power unit will convert the mechanical energy of the internal combustion engine into hydraulic energy through the hydraulic oil pump. Then passing the hydraulic energy through the oil pipe and various control valves to the hydraulic motor and cylinder. In this process, the hydraulic energy is converted into mechanical energy again to drive the machine for operation.
7. Mechanical Transmission Parts
The working principle of a mechanical transmission system is to transfer the power of the internal combustion engine to the hydraulic oil pump. And then turn the hydraulic energy of the motor and the oil cylinder into the mechanical energy, so as to drive the working mechanisms.
8. Hydraulic Drive System
Hydraulic drive system components are divided into the hydraulic pump, motor, cylinder, oil pipe, fuel tank and control valve, etc.
The principle of a hydraulic actuator is oil pump transforms the mechanical power of the internal combustion engine into hydraulic energy. Then the motor will change the hydraulic energy into the mechanical energy to drive the crawler crane running. The advantages of the hydraulic drive include convenient speed regulation, stable transmission, light operation, small size, and lightweight. More than that, it also has the function of the speed limit, self-lockin. So it has a wide application in crawler crane.
9. Control Device
The control device plays an important role to operate and control each working mechanism of the equipment. So that each mechanism can perform actions like starting, adjusting speed, reversing, and stopping according to the requirements. The control device is mainly composed of the joystick, control valve, button, switch, and controller.
10. Safety Device
The safety device on the crawler crane is mainly for the safe operation of a crawler crane. The major crawler crane parts in it include hoisting overwinter, protection device to prevent the boom from tilting too much, moment limiter, and so on.
Important Tips on How to Operate The Crawler Crane Parts Safely
The correct operation of crawler crane components could add the service life of the equipment. Besides, it also helps to reduce the possible accidents, decrease the downtime, and obtain better economic benefits.
Keep A Safe Distance
There should be a safety distance of at least 10 meters between the crawler crane and the transmission line. If the crane boom is very long, the safety distance should be increased to 20 meters. Moreover, the weight of the lifting weight must be clear in advance. Before lifting, always remember to make sure the hook is directly above the gravity centerline of the load.
Running on Flat Ground
Because of the crawler crane’s great self-weight, high grounding pressure, it must work on flat and solid ground. Generally speaking, the maximum allowable gradient for crane operation is 0.3 and 2.5 for traveling. Ordinally, the maximum elevation angle of the boom of pitch luffing shall not exceed 78 °. So as to prevent serious accidents caused by the backward inclination of the boom.
Check The Crawler Crane Components before Working
To make sure the normal operation of the equipment, before start-up, there are some crawler crane parts inspections items deserve our attention:
- All safety protection devices and indicating instruments are complete and in good condition.
- Ensure the safety and reliability of steel wire rope and connecting parts.
- Lookout if fuel, lube, hydraulic oil, cooling water is sufficient.
- Check the adapting pieces for loose.
Put The Boom in The Windward Direction
When a crawler crane is running under load, the maximum wind force it can bear is 9.8m/s. In order to reduce the windward side and the wind pressure on the crane, after the operation, the boom shall be turned to the windward direction and dropped to 40 ° – 60 °. Aside from that, the operator also needs to lift the crawler crane components hook nearly to the top position, shut down the internal combustion engine, put each joystick in a neutral position. In addition, don’t forget to lock the cab.
Do Not Get Too Close between The Hook And Pulley
During equipment running, there are should be a certain distance between hook and pulley. This practice is to prevent excessive winch operation from breaking the wire rope or crawler crane boom turning over afterward. When the boom is lifted to the maximum elevation and the hook is at the lowest position, certainly guarantee the steel rope in hoisting mechanism left 3 rounds at least.
Park The Machinery on A Solid Ground
After completing the work, the operator should park the machinery on solid ground. Don’t park it next to the edge of the cliff and soft shoulder parking. Besides, make sure the hook in retract state,
Boom Should Be in The Right Ahead of The Track When Lifting
When the crawler crane moving with loads, the boom shall be in the right ahead of the track, the height from the ground mustn’t within 50 cm. Slewing, boom and hook must be in the braking state. When the equipment is in almost full load operation. The boom is strictly prohibited to be perpendicular to the track. Furthermore, it is inappropriate to move a crawler crane for a long-distance.
So this is all about the main components of a crawler crane. If you still have any questions then just let us know. We’ll be more than happy to help you out.
Suggested reading: 7 Mistakes to Avoid When Maintaining Your Crawler Crane Parts
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